Monday, November 2, 2015

This MUST Be Replicated Immediately

faster than the speed of light
Scientists can now “squeeze” light, a breakthrough that could make computers millions of times faster
If this is possible, it is a huge breakthrough, not just to computing, but to communications, both in bandwidth and speed. I admit to not understanding the claim entirely. But I have always wondered why there is a limit to velocity, when velocity is merely relative to a fixed point in space, or an observer.

Why, for example, are two particles moving toward each other, each moving at the speed of light, NOT moving at relative velocities of 2C regarding each other? I have always doubted that the particle's mass increases toward infinity merely due to being observed from reference point A, but not when simultaneously observed from moving reference point B.

This is further confused by the entangled particle problem in which one particle communicates with its entangled counterpart faster than the speed of light. Einstein's equations must necessarily be special cases in the same sense that Newton's physics relates to special cases.

At any rate, I suspect that all heads-up solid state researchers are all over this in corporate labs around the world.


Robert Coble said...

An interested commoner (not a scientismist) might observe that there might be something wrong with the contingently "best" scientific theory. What if it turns out that the speed of light is NOT an upper bound to velocity? Any time I see references to physical infinities (such as infinite mass as one approaches the speed of light), I start contemplating unrealities supposedly ruled out by those physical theories.

If nothing physical can exceed the speed of light, then what are two entangled particles? Are they not physical, or are they merely convenient probabilistic wave functions with no physical existence? But if they are merely theoretical constructs, whence physical reality? On the other hand, if two entangled particles ARE physical, then is it not obvious that, at least on some level, there is no physical constraint on ultimate velocity?

(Scratching my head, trying to figure out where this mental itch originated...)

Xellos said...

Note that phase velocity exceeding the speed of light isn't something new (though the claim of very large phase velocity may be) and doesn't invalidate relativity. Information isn't transferred through phase, but amplitude, so group velocity is what matters - and even that can be faster than light in cases when the information is transferred a more complex manner and not with that velocity (it's possible to greatly vary group velocity by preparing a material with a sufficiently steep dispersion relation).

It's not like information is a message in a bottle flowing on electromagnetic waves.

Robert Coble said...


Information CAN be passed through phase modulation, as well as through amplitude modulation, as long as it can be controlled through encoding and decoding.

I'm not claiming that relativity is "invalidated." Just as relativity expanded on Newtonian physics, so does quantum mechanics expand on relativity. I merely opine that there just MIGHT be something even more refined that might invalidate certain assumed and accepted limitations, such as the limiting factor of the speed of light. It costs nothing to consider the idea.

Stan said...

Actually, information transmission via phase modulation is a viable and common practice.

Mental experiment:
Suppose we have two comb-like ladders with equally spaced teeth or rungs. These two ladders are very, very long, and are made of incompressible material. Now we lie one ladder on the other with the rungs exactly positioned over/under each other. If we wish to transmit information, we may consider this position of the ladders to a "one". When the top ladder is moved off position, that may be considered a zero.

But even further, the distance the top ladder is moved off position could be measured, and that distance could represent even higher orders of information than just a zero.

Three things: first the information transfer is instantaneous, given the incompressibility of the material of which the ladders are composed. Second, the information is in the form of phase modulation, not in the amplitude or frequency of the rungs. Third, the information at the far end is locked in, until the phase is changed at the originating end.

Caveat. I understand that there are no known materials that are completely incompressible. That doesn't obviate the theory of the example. I also understand that this does not apply to radiated electromagnetic waveforms because a source phase change is not instantaneously propagated. And that doesn't obviate the instantaneous nature of the example, either.

It would appear that there are some phase spaces which are, in fact, instantaneous, but not all phase spaces.

yonose said...

Xelios, and everyone else, too!!!!

"Information isn't transferred through phase, but amplitude, so group velocity is what matters"

That is, taking the EM wave as a model, in which any photon is considered to be "conservative" when disturbed from rest or when scattered (The biggest problem with QED, and subsequently, QCD), and traveling in the vacuum. Under those conditions, should I agree.

Phase Velocity also means that the photon should be treated as an invariant element, when being analyzed as a wave function using the phase space. This does not necessarily happens in nature.

Phase Velocity and Group Velocity are not the only factors to consider. When photons are re-polarized or pass through different mediums, the Phase Velocity is not the only thing that changes, but Frequency ALSO CHANGES, albeit slightly in many cases. We should get rid of the old paradigm, of believing that Frequency is invariant when light changes mediums! This frequency shift also affects the EM Wave's velocity!, leaving also bigger question about relativity.

Using Cartan's geometry and also correcting the curvature as variable rather than constant in Einstein's tensor equation should do the trick!

This is analogous to what happens with classical AM (Amplitude Modulation) in Telecom Equipment: Using a parametric oscillator to change Amplitude, not only affects the position of the Phase, but also affects the average frequency (Using Fourier Analysis) which happens when Amplitude changes.

Also, the Phase Velocity, if it is proved to NOT to be invariant using a Phase Space (as it should be), then also gives to be understood of the analogous of Phase Modulation (PM), using telecom equipment, but maybe without phase angle conjugation (360º - ø). FM also works using a parametric oscillator taking a phase angle ø as an input, but with that one it changes the passing frequency.

I agree with you, that in some optical or optoelectronic circuits, information is also transmitted and received, using modulation in amplitude. As of the mainstream current technologies.

Maybe the proposed Quantum Ring Theory (QRT) should give Quantum Entanglement a new meaning, and forget about this "Squeezing Light" nonsense. If this is true, there's much more than that. That's the trick of mainstream research. To keep some stuff in secret.

Lets just hope this is true and not an instrumental botch-up or an outright fraud, or simply a rehash of misinformation from interested parties, as such "scientific research" has had become.

Kind Regards, to everyone!!

Stan said...

Good to hear from you!

Yes, amplitude modulation does induce frequency variation on both sides of the carrier (sidebands). One very early technique was to suppress the carrier frequency and one side band (both wasted energy) and to use only one side band to transmit information (called "single side band). Much more efficient use of energy.

I never got into that as a ham operator, I had to sell all my ham equipment in order to go to college.

yonose said...


You are correct about those techniques!! The frequency variation in the carrier's sidebands is more visible when analyzed in the frequency domain. The problem in the engineering we see nowadays is such that, sometimes we ignore such a phenomena when seen in the time domain.

An AM receiver is a good example of a parametric oscillator, on which the frequency or period of the variation of any capacitance or inductance, affects the amplitude and the sidebands of the carrier, which frequency shift is directly proportional to the "parametric" part of the oscillator (variation of amplitude of the modulator "wave"). We know that already.

This phenomena also happens in the far field, lasers, etc, when amplitude modulation is used, no matter if digital (ASK) or analog, because a photon also has mass, which can also be expressed by its wave function, and not necessarily by using the electron's wave function as a modulator, and the photons being carriers, which is what has been done here with really expensive equipment -- just to determine the obvious some time ago, because some scientists are reluctant to see things for what they are:


The area of an elliptically polarized, transverse wave, form an helicoid. The photon has a mass even in its wave form, it is a form of discerning mass without thinking about matter.

If the sum of a two, phase conjugate waves is amplified, and form an standing wave, then, it is totally possible to have photons which form magnetic fields, with variable compressibility!!

Maybe they are trying to "use one sideband" with that refraction index, talking about an optic or maybe even a metatronic circuit. Such photons would have many problems in transporting information, IFF the medium changes back, even if it is the vacuum.

Compressiblity of the magnetic field diminishes, but does not raise. It would be just like transporting light from one side to the other, while light "squeezes" through a gap, ignoring the effects of neutrinos and all that stuff. "Squeezing" light, affects its transport, and light is not spatially squeezed, but the compression of the produced magnetic field is what actually changes.

The conjecture I might come up with is that, when photons are "compressed", the magnetic field formed by the photon losses compression and expands in relation with the electric field, but not the opposite and that affects transport positively. I do not believe it may work at very long distances.

I may be mentioning "crackpotish" ideas but, like many of you, may not get rid of the commonsense so many researchers lack today.

Kind Regards!!